Learning Theory. Set of principles and propositions that explain how and why people learn. Descriptive in nature. Note: Learning theorists also often recommend (prescribe) methods for facilitating learning (see Instructional Theory). Major classes of learning theories include:
- Cognitive Information Processing | Social Cognitive
- Cognitive Constructivist | Social Constructivist
- Neuro-Biological (Brain-Based)
- Science of Learning (multidisciplinary)
Instructional Theory. Set of principles and propositions that prescribe methods for facilitating learning. Prescriptive in nature. Strategies (and Tactics) represent the application of a learning or instructional theory. Note: Instructional theorists often refer to and base prescriptions on learning theories. Instructional theories range from teacher-directed to student-centered.
- Gagne’s Conditions of Learning
- Component Display Theory
- Elaboration Theory
- Experiential Learning
- Problem-based Learning
Instructional Strategy. Comprehensive series of instructional events and activities for facilitating learning. A strategy typically consists of one complete set of events or activities associated with an instructional lesson or unit. Strategies (and tactics) represent the application of a learning or instructional theory, and may range from teacher-directed to student-centered strategies.
- Direct Instructional Strategies
- Gagne’s 9 Events
- Experiential Learning Strategies
- Problem-Based Learning Strategies
Instructional Tactics (aka. Approach). Individual or multiple instructional events or activities for facilitating learning. A comprehensive set or series of tactics represent an instructional strategy. Often referred to, but distinguished here from instructional strategies; tactics require additional instructional events and activities either before or after implementation to be effective.
- Active learning
- Team-Based Learning
- Small group learning
- Self-learning modules, Directed self-learning modules
Instructional Design (ID) Models. Overall process for creating training and educational program that typically include step-by-step guidelines for analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.
- ADDIE (Dick & Carey, Smith & Ragan) | Waterfall/shed | Spiral
- Agile (SAM, SAM2)
- ARCS Model of Motivational Design
Curriculum. Program of study offered by a school that consists of outcomes, courses, and assessments.
Epistemology. The study of how people derive meaning, also referred to as the theory of knowledge. Ranges from:
Evidenced-Based Education (aka. Grounded Design). Learning experiences grounded in theory, research, and documented best practice.
Design-Based Research. Method for conducting research that focuses on improving an instructional product, process, policy, theory, or tool. Also referred to as:
- Improvement science
- Formative research